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Usually, different cables serve as a passage for an electron to pass. Those cables contain various thin fibers in them. Various types of fibers are used for the transmission of current and signals.

The man who invented optical fibers was Charles Kuen Kao. He is credited for discovering specific physical characteristics of glass in the 1960s, earning him the title of “father of fiber optic communications.”

Optical fibers are incredibly thin, hollow, flexible, transparent, tube-like wires composed of plastic or glass. It is created by pulling glass or plastic to a diameter only a hair’s width thicker. There are two types of optical fibers:

  1. Single-Mode (SM) fiberonly has one passage via a much smaller core.
  2. Multimode (MM) Fiberhas a big core and allows for several channels through the fiber.

Parts of optical fiber:

Mainly there are three components of optical fiber:

  • Core: which is the tiniest component and transports the light.
  • Cladding: It holds light and has a lower refractive index than the region surrounding the core.
  • Coating: which safeguards the delicate fiber within.

Transmission Mode:

Fibers are bundled into optical cables to transport information across great distances. The data transmission systems convert electrical impulses into light to transmit data across the fiber.

Electrical input is transformed into an optical output by a laser diode or LED in the transmitter. Over the use of a connector, the light from the transmitter is linked to the fiber and transported through the fiber optic cable network.

Uses Of Optical Fibers:

Because they enable transmission over greater distances and at higher bandwidth levels, optical fibers are frequently utilized in fiber-optic communications. Besides fiber optic communications, they are widely used in various other places like the automotive industry, for transmitting internet signals, decorations and lighting, mechanical inspections, dentistry and medicine, and more. .


Fiber optic components are an essential part of telecommunications networks, including cable television and phone lines. But they’re also used for other purposes. For example, fiber optic cables are often used to connect computers together in a network. This can be done either in a local area network (LAN) or over wide-area networks (WAN).